- Self-testing of a single quantum device under computational assumptions
Self-testing is a method to characterise an arbitrary quantum system based only on its classical input-output correlations. This usually requires the assumption that the system's state is shared among multiple parties that only perform local measurements and cannot communicate. Here, we replace the setting of multiple non-communicating parties, which is difficult to enforce in practice, by a single computationally bounded party. Specifically, we construct a protocol that allows a classical verifier to robustly certify that a single computationally bounded quantum device must have prepared a Bell pair and performed single-qubit measurements on it, up to a change of basis applied to both the device's state and measurements. This means that under computational assumptions, the verifier is able to certify the presence of entanglement inside a single quantum device. We achieve this using techniques introduced by Brakerski et al. (2018) and Mahadev (2018) which allow a classical verifier to constrain the actions of a quantum device assuming the device does not break post-quantum cryptography.
Tony Metger, Thomas Vidick
Submitted, arXiv:2001.09161.
- MIP*=RE
We show that the class MIP* of languages that can be decided by a classical verifier interacting with multiple all-powerful quantum provers sharing entanglement is equal to the class RE of recursively enumerable languages. Our proof builds upon the quantum low-degree test of (Natarajan and Vidick, FOCS 2018) by integrating recent developments from (Natarajan and Wright, FOCS 2019) and combining them with the recursive compression framework of (Fitzsimons et al., STOC 2019). An immediate byproduct of our result is that there is an efficient reduction from the Halting Problem to the problem of deciding whether a two-player nonlocal game has entangled value 1 or at most 12. Using a known connection, undecidability of the entangled value implies a negative answer to Tsirelson's problem: we show, by providing an explicit example, that the closure Cqa of the set of quantum tensor product correlations is strictly included in the set Cqc of quantum commuting correlations. Following work of (Fritz, Rev. Math. Phys. 2012) and (Junge et al., J. Math. Phys. 2011) our results provide a refutation of Connes' embedding conjecture from the theory of von Neumann algebras.
Zhengfeng Ji, Anand Natarajan, Thomas Vidick, John Wright, Henry Yuen
Manuscript. See the related introductory article, blog post, and recorded overview talk, arXiv:2001.04383.
- Non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments for QMA, with preprocessing
We initiate the study of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) arguments for languages in QMA. Our first main result is the following: if Learning With Errors (LWE) is hard for quantum computers, then any language in QMA has an NIZK argument with preprocessing. The preprocessing in our argument system consists of (i) the generation of a CRS and (ii) a single (instance-independent) quantum message from verifier to prover. The instance-dependent phase of our argument system involves only a single classical message from prover to verifier. Importantly, verification in our protocol is entirely classical, and the verifier needs not have quantum memory; its only quantum actions are in the preprocessing phase. Our second contribution is to extend the notion of a classical proof of knowledge to the quantum setting. We introduce the notions of arguments and proofs of quantum knowledge (AoQK/PoQK), and we show that our non-interactive argument system satisfies the definition of an AoQK. In particular, we explicitly construct an extractor which can recover a quantum witness from any prover which is successful in our protocol. Finally, we show that any language in QMA has an (interactive) proof of quantum knowledge.
Andrea Coladangelo, Thomas Vidick, Tina Zhang
Submitted, arXiv:1911.07546.
- From Operator Algebras to Complexity Theory and Back
Thomas Vidick
Notices of the AMS, November 2019.
- Verifying quantum computations at scale A cryptographic leash on quantum devices
Thomas Vidick
Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 2020.
- Computationally-secure and composable remote state preparation
We introduce a protocol between a classical polynomial-time verifier and a quantum polynomial-time prover that allows the verifier to securely delegate to the prover the preparation of certain single-qubit quantum states. The protocol realizes the following functionality, with computational security: the verifier chooses one of the observables Z, X, Y, (X+Y)/sqrt(2), (X−Y)/sqrt(2); the prover receives a uniformly random eigenstate of the observable chosen by the verifier; the verifier receives a classical description of that state. The prover is unaware of which state he received and moreover, the verifier can check with high confidence whether the preparation was successful. The delegated preparation of single-qubit states is an elementary building block in many quantum cryptographic protocols. We expect our implementation of random remote state preparation with verification, a functionality first defined in (Dunjko and Kashefi 2014), to be useful for removing the need for quantum communication in such protocols while keeping functionality. The main application that we detail is to a protocol for blind and verifiable delegated quantum computation (DQC) that builds on the work of (Fitzsimons and Kashefi 2018), who provided such a protocol with quantum communication. Recently, both blind an verifiable DQC were shown to be possible, under computational assumptions, with a classical polynomial-time client (Mahadev 2017, Mahadev 2018). Compared to the work of Mahadev, our protocol is more modular, applies to the measurement-based model of computation (instead of the Hamiltonian model) and is composable. Our proof of security builds on ideas introduced in (Brakerski et al. 2018).
Alexandru Gheorghiu, Thomas Vidick
Presented at QCRYPT'19. Proceedings of FOCS'19, arXiv:1904.06320.
- Classical zero-knowledge arguments for quantum computations
We show that every language in BQP admits a classical-verifier, quantum-prover zero-knowledge argument system which is sound against quantum polynomial-time provers and zero-knowledge for classical (and quantum) polynomial-time verifiers. The protocol builds upon two recent results: a computational zero-knowledge proof system for languages in QMA, with a quantum verifier, introduced by Broadbent et al. (FOCS 2016), and an argument system for languages in BQP, with a classical verifier, introduced by Mahadev (FOCS 2018).
Thomas Vidick, Tina Zhang
Presented at TQC'19. Submitted, arXiv:1902.05217.
- Bounds on Dimension Reduction in the Nuclear Norm
Oded Regev, Thomas Vidick
GAFA seminar notes, arXiv:1901.09480.
- Trading locality for time: certifiable randomness from low-depth circuits
The generation of certifiable randomness is the most fundamental information-theoretic task that meaningfully separates quantum devices from their classical counterparts. We propose a protocol for exponential certified randomness expansion using a single quantum device. The protocol calls for the device to implement a simple quantum circuit of constant depth on a 2D lattice of qubits. The output of the circuit can be verified classically in linear time, and contains a polynomial number of certified random bits under the sole physical assumption that the device used to generate the output operated using a (classical or quantum) circuit of sub-logarithmic depth. This assumption contrasts with the locality assumption used for randomness certification based on Bell inequality violation and more recent proposals for randomness certification based on computational assumptions. Our procedure is inspired by recent work of Bravyi et al. (arXiv:1704.00690), who designed a relation problem that can be solved by a constant-depth quantum circuit, but provably cannot be solved by any classical circuit of sub-logarithmic depth. We expand the discovery of Bravyi et al. into a framework for robust randomness expansion. Furthermore, to demonstrate randomness generation it is sufficient for a device to sample from the ideal output distribution within constant statistical distance. Our proposal can thus be interpreted as a proposal for demonstrated quantum advantage that is more noise-tolerant than most other existing proposals that can only tolerate multiplicative error, or require additional conjectures from complexity theory. Our separation does not require any conjectures, but assumes that the adversarial device implements a circuit of sub-logarithmic depth.
Matthew Coudron, Jalex Stark, Thomas Vidick
Presented at QIP'19. Manuscript, arXiv:1810.04233.
- Quantum proof systems for iterated exponential time, and beyond
We show that any language in nondeterministic time exp(exp(⋯exp(n))), where the number of iterated exponentials is an arbitrary function R(n), can be decided by a multiprover interactive proof system with a classical polynomial-time verifier and a constant number of quantum entangled provers, with completeness 1 and soundness 1−exp(−Cexp(⋯exp(n))), where the number of iterated exponentials is R(n)−1 and C>0 is a universal constant. The result was previously known for R=1 and R=2; we obtain it for any time-constructible function R. The result is based on a compression technique for interactive proof systems with entangled provers that significantly simplifies and strengthens a protocol compression result of Ji (STOC'17). As a separate consequence of this technique we obtain a different proof of Slofstra's recent result (unpublished) on the uncomputability of the entangled value of multiprover games. Finally, we show that even minor improvements to our compression result would yield remarkable consequences in computational complexity theory and the foundations of quantum mechanics: first, it would imply that the class MIP* contains all computable languages; second, it would provide a negative resolution to a multipartite version of Tsirelson's problem on the relation between the commuting operator and tensor product models for quantum correlations.
Joseph Fitzsimons, Zhengfeng Ji, Thomas Vidick, Henry Yuen
Presented at QIP'19. Proceedings of STOC'19, arXiv:1805.12166.